Difusión del libro español y fomento de la lectura en español en Irlanda  (1970-1995)

Cuando llegué a Irlanda en 1968, para trabajar como lector de español en el departamento de Estudios Hispánicos de la Universidad Trinity College de Dublín, no existía ningún centro o instituto cultural español en el país. En Dublín organizaba actividades culturales la «Dublin Spanish Society» fundada en 1945.

instituto-cultural-español-de-dublin-769x1024 Difusión del libro español y fomento de la lectura en español en Irlanda  (1970-1995)
Instituto Cultural Español de Dublin , calle Northumberland 4, Dublin, Irlanda

Los libros en español se importaban del Reino Unido y los fondos de las secciones de lengua y literatura españolas de las bibliotecas públicas eran muy limitados, motivo por el que fundé en 1970 el Centro Español de Documentación e Intercambios Culturales de Dublín.

Trinity News de la Universidad Trinity College el 24 de abril de 1970 contiene la noticia de la fundación del citado Cento de Documentación:

A Trinity Foreign Language Assistant, Senor José Antonio Sierra, has started a centre in Dublin for the promotion of cultural and educational relations between Irelanda and Spain. Antonio Sierra hopes that his «Centro Espanol» will be the nucleus of a Spanish Institute conparable to the French, German and Italian Institutes already in Dublin». «The centre contains a collection of up-to-date catalogues of Sapnish publications and a reference library of books on the language, literature, culture, socio-economic and political affairs of Spain and Latin America.»

Centro Español de Docomentación, February, 1970
The aims of the Centro Español are as follows:
a) To establish a permanent collection of catalogues of all Sapnish publications pertaining to Spanish language and literture. Also to be able to provide examples of the latest methods of teaching and studying Spanish. int this way to be in a positionto to be able to supplay teachers of Spanish, and any others interested in the same field, with all the  necessary information they might require on their subject.
b) To have available for reference selected books, magazines, newspapers and audiovisual materials. These to provide general information about Spain not only on cultural topics but also on recent change and developmennt in the social, political and economic life of the nation.-

Instituto Cultural Español de Dublín

Inició sus actividades en 1971, actual Cervantes desde 1992. En 1972, entre sus líneas de acción incluyó la difusión del libro español y fomento de la lectura en español en toda Irlanda. Tras su solicitud, el Instituto Nacional del Libro Español envió la Circular Nº58/72 en junio de 1972 a todas los editores de España.


Muy señores nuestros:
D. José Antonio Sierra, Director del recientemente creado Instituto Cultural Español, en Dublín, comunica a este Instituto su propósito de organizar una Exposición permanente de catálogos y novedades editoriales españolas en los locales de dicho Instituto, con el fin de darlas a conocer a los profesores y alumnos de los cursos de español que se imparten en casi todos los centros de enseñanza media y Universidades de la República de Irlanda.
Parece conveniente que se remitan dicho Instituto aquellos títulos que tengan relación con la enseñanza de la lengua y cultura españolas en general sin olvidar los diccionarios españoles y bilingües.
Dirección del Instituto: 58, Northumberland Road, Dublin 4, Irlanda
Leopoldo Zumalacárregui, Director

Spanish Books and Roses in Ireland (1970 – 1995)

The idea for World Book Day originated in Catalonia where, on 23rd April – Saint George’s Day – a rose is traditionally given as a gift for each book sold. The 23rd April is recognised as being the birthday of William Shakespeare – it also the date on which he died. April 23rd was designated World Book and Copyright Day by Unesco because it was seen as a symbolic date for world literature. Their website states: for on this date and in the same year of 1616, Cervantes, Shakespeare and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega all died. It is also the date of birth or death of other prominent authors such as Maurice Druon, K. Laxness, Vladimir Nabokov, Josep Pla and Manuel Mejía Vallejo. It was a natural choice for UNESCO’s General Conference to pay a world-wide tribute to books and authors on this date, encouraging everyone, and in particular young people, to discover the pleasure of reading and gain a renewed respect for the irreplaceable contributions of those who have furthered the social and cultural progress of humanity
Irish Library News, Dublin, April 2002

Issued by An Chomhairle Leabharlanna (The Library Council)

ILN – No. 27 January 1980
DUBLIN PUBLIC LIBRARIES: The Spanish Cultural Institute has maintained a very fruitful contact with the Dublin City and County Libraries over the past five years. Mr. Sierra, the Director, has been instrumental in providing many valuable gifts of Spanish books, magazines and gramophone records. The latest presentation consists of some 50 books, a selection of sheet music and a parcel of records representative of Spanish classical and choral music. The Institute hopes to co-operate with the Libraries during 1980 in mounting a major exhibition.

ILN – No. 40 March 1981
BALLYMUN Library was the venue for an exhibition of Spanish posters donated to the Dublin Public Libraries by the Spanish Cultural Institute for use within the picture lending scheme and for other relevant library activity. The exhibition which was opened by the Lord Mayor of Dublin, Alderman Fergus O´Brien T.D., was attended by representatives of the Spanish Embassy, the Spanish Cultural Institute and the local community in Ballymun. It is intended to mount this exhibition in other libraries within the Dublin Public Library system during the coming year and also to make some of the items from the exhibition available on loan to other organisations on request.

THE presentation of a number of historical books and records by the Spanish Cultural Institute to Cork City Library was marked on Saturday by a recital of classical guitar pieces by Cork guitarist Jerry Creedon.
The recital was held in the Central Library, Grand Parade. Those present included the Cork County Library Committee. Members of the Cork Spanish Circle attended the recital, and the Corporation was represented by Assistant Cork City Manager Mr. J.J. Higgins.
Thanking the Spanish Cultural Institute for their generous donation, the Library Committee Chairman, Mr C. McCarthy, said that Cork city and county had many connections with Spain over the years, and this donation was only going to further the links. The presentation consists of a collection of records of early Spanish music, vocal and instrumental, and wide ranging selection of books.
Fuente: CORK EXAMINER, 17 June 1982

ILN – No.63 August 1983
SPANISH CULTURAL INSTITUTE: The Institute has made a number of donations to public libraries recently, and has assisted in the mounting of exhibitions about Spain. In April of this year Mr. José Antonio Sierra presented a selection of books, slides, tapes and records to Dublin Public Libraries and participated in an exhibition entitled ‘Spain, its culture and people’ at Deansgrange branch library. A donation of books, posters and leaflets was made to Kildare Country Library in May, and a further donation of books and magazines was presented to Dun Laoghaire Public Library in June.
The Institute also publishes a list of recommended Spanish publications for the Spanish section of public and school libraries. The Spanish Cultural Institute is situated at 58 Northumberland Rd.,Dublin .

ILN – No.55 September/October 1982
The Spanish Cultural Institute has recently donated a large number of slides, which show general aspects of the Spanish countryside, to the Dublin Public Libraries. The slides, which will be accompanied by explanatory notes, will be located in the new library at Deansgrange in County Dublin, but it is hoped to make them available to teachers and members of the public via inter-library loan to other branches within the Dublin system.

ILN – No. 69  May/June 1984
THE SPANISH CULTURAL INSTITUTE: A number of libraries throughout the country have been in receipt of gifts of multi-media material relating to Spanish life and culture. The following libraries have recently added this material to their collections: Longford/Westmeath County Library; Limerick City and County Libraries; Mary Immaculate College of Education, Limerick; Meath County Library and the Regional Technical College, Galway. The gifts were presented by Mr. José Antonio Sierra, Director of the Spanish Cultural Institute, Dublin.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, GALWAY: An exhibition of material illustrating the career of Antonio Gaudí y Cornet (1852-1926), the famous artist and architect from Catalonia, Spain, was held in the Art Gallery, Galway, recently. The exhibition was presented by the Spanish Cultural Institute, Dublin and was Spain’s contribution to Galway’s Quincentennial Celebration. The exhibition was officially opened in April by His Excellency the Spanish Ambassador, Don Luis Jordana de Pozas.

LAOIS County Library recently received donations of books, from the Spanish Cultural Institute. These material was presented by Mr Jose Antonio Sierra, Director of the Institute. These donations will be of value to anyone interested in Spain and will also help students preparing various projects on the Country. The material is available for consultation at Portlaoise Branch Library.
Fuente:THE LEINSTER EXPRESS, May 12th, 1984

ILN – No. 70  July 1984
DUBLIN PUBLIC LIBRARIES: An exhibition entitled Celts of Asturias, Spain, was held in Dean’s Grange Branch Library from 19th-30th June, 1984.
The ancient Art and Culture of the pre-Roman settlers of this northern region of Spain was featured. Included in the exhibition were pictures of Cashels, Cromlechs, Gold Torcs, Booley Villages and the little horse of the mountains known as The Asturicon. The event was presented by Dublin Public Libraries in collaboration with the Spanish Cultural Institute and The Fingal Historical Society.

TRALEE library: An Exhibition of Prints by Irish Artists has been on display. The works of the famous Spanish Architect Antonio Gaudí were also highlighted in an Exhibition made available to the Library by the Spanish Cultural Institute during the month of June.

SPANISH CULTURAL INSTITUTE: Dublin Public Libraries and the National Institute for Higher Education Dublin have been in receipt of Donations of Spanish material from the Spanish Cultural Institute Dublin. The School of Applied languages in NIHE Dublin is impressed with the appropriateness of the material for use in the Spanish language courses which it offers. Many librarians and teachers alike may be interested to learn that a Spanish edition of ‘Authentic’ which contain extractas from Spanish newspapers and magazines put together in the form of a tabloid newspaper will be available from September onwards. The Spanish edition will include notes to assist readers in Ireland and Britain to come to grips with journalistic language. Spanish edition, is being produced by the Learning Resources Centre, Trinity College, Dublin. Furher details from The Spanish Cultural Institute, Dublin 4.

The Spanish Culural Institute is offering the following titles free to public labraries:

    • The Spain of the Museums
    • The Way to Santiago
    • Cultural Life in Spain
    • Nature in Spain
    • Monumental Spain and a detailed map of Spain

All the booklets are superbly illustrated in colour were readable texts.
Contact: Señor José Antonio Sierra, Director, The Spanish Cultural Institute, Dublin.

Mr. Antonio Sierra, of the Spanish Cultural Institute in Dublin, has presented a number of slides, maps and assorted literature on Spain to the Meath C. Library.
Mr. W.P.Smith, Co. Librarian, said at the monthly Meath Library Advisory Committee meeting that any schools or teachers who were contemplating projects on any aspect of Spain should get in touch with the library where their needs would be facilitated.
Fuente: THE MEATH CHRONICLE, June 1984

A NEW Spanish music section of the Gramophone Recor Library (of the City and County Libraries, Lower Kevin Street, Dublin 8) was opened last month.
The Spanish music section was formed by the joint co-operation of the Spanish Cultural Institute and the Dublin Public Libraries Music Departmente. The collection (of all types of Spanish music, new and old) has been compiled to accommodate the Spanish and Latin-American community in Ireland and the increasing number of Irish people interested in Spanish music.
Fuente: ASTIR, January 1977

MAR FHREAGRA ar léitheoir a scríobh chugainn, is mar leanas atá rannóg nua Cheol na Spáinnise, a osclaíodh i Leabharlann Cheirníní Shráid Chaoimhín i mBaile Atha Cliath roimh Nollaig, rangaithe:

    • Meánaoiseach agus Ath-bheochanach
    • Baróc
    • Ceol orgáin
    • Ceol clasiceach agus Flamenco giotáir
    • Zarzuela (coiméide ceoil)
    • Ceoldráma
    • Sean-Nós
    • Cumadóirí agus ealafontóirí nua-aoiseacha

Fuente: INNIU, 21 Eanáir, 1977ILN – NO.66 January 1984


As mentioned in previous issues of ILN, the Spanish Cultural Institute provides advice to libraries wishing to established or extend their collections on Spain. In the past the Institute had donated Spanish language material (books and periodicals, records and posters) to some public libraries.
Records and cassettes were donated to Dublin Public Libraries and Cork City Libraries, a collection of material on the Church in Spain has recently been presented to the Catholic Central Library, materials on teaching methods have been deposited with the library of Instituid Teangeolaichta Eireann (Language Institute of Ireland) and a number of other libraries have received advice and donations of material, as well as assistance in setting up exhibitions on Spanish culture. The Institute is keen to promote its links with public libraries and is willing to donate material to help build collections on Spain. Librarians wishing further information are invited to contact the Institute.
From January 1984 the Institute will be able to provide a photographic exhibition of works of the internationally famour Spanish architec, Gaudí.
The exhibition comes complete with insurance, catalogues, etc. Libraries wishing to display this collection of fascinating photographs shoul contact the Institute. Libraries will be expected to pay the transport costs for the exhibition. Further details are available from the Director, Spanish Cultural Institute, 58, Northumberland Road, Dublin 4
Libraries wishing to extend their Spanish language or those who wish to build up a tape library for Spanish studies will be interested in the Spanish National Radio’s Cultural Cooperation Programme. This non-profit venture aims to broadcast the language, news and culture of Spain by means of cassettes recordings. The programme consists ot two 30 minute programmes – ‘Spanish Panorama’, a monthly summary of events, and ‘Close up’, a report on contemporary Spanish events. There is a subscription to this non-commercial service, but all subscribers receive the Programme free of charge during first year. Application should be made direct to the Director, R.N.E. Transcription Service, Apartado 150210, Madrid 24, Spain.


MORE often than not experience of art is through reproductions. With technological advance in colour printin, art books and magazines now provide everyone with ready access to the great images of painting and sculpture. This leaves the RDS library with the only collection of art books assessible to Dublilners.
All the more wellcome is the gesture by the Spanish Cultural Institute in celebrating the RDS’s 250th anniversary with a presentation of over 150 books cataloguing and illustrating the whole range of Spanish art from Velazquez, El Greco and Goya to Tapies, Picasso and Dalí.»We’ll continue adding to the collection as new titles are published,» Institute director José Antonio Sierra tells me.
Fuente: THE IRISH TIMES, November 28, 1981


THE recent Spanish Government gift to the RDS Library of over 150 books on Spanish art allows this library to offer a reference and guide to the glories of Spanish art which, while not perhaps quite the equivalent of a visit to the Prado, gives the opportunity to see the range of Spanish art in a way not available elsewhere. Since you may think that you have to be a member to enter the august portals in Ballsbridge, it is, I understand, a condition of the gift that the books should be always available to whoever wishes to consult them, whether an RDS member or not
Fuente: THE IRISH TIMES, December 8, 1981


IF YOU live within striking distance of Deansgrange Public Library you might be interested in an exhibition that is being staged there starting this weekend. It is titled «Spain – Its Culture and People» and it is maounted with the aid of the Spanish Cultural Institute. There will be films, video presentation and three lectures by the Director of the institute, Antonio Sierra.
The lectures (all, start at 7.3o p.m.) are «Spain-A General Introduction» (April 27); «The Languages of Spain», (May 4), and «Spain Today» (May 11). Finnula Hanrahan has the details.
Fuente: THE IRISH TIMES, April 22, 1983


A VERY fine collection of material relating to Spain was recently donated to the County Library by Mr Jose Antonio Sierra on behalf of the Spanish Cultural Institute. This collection includes books in Spanish, brochures illustrating the cultural, historical, economic and social life of the country; beautiful coloured slides of the various regions, and also illustrating the history of Spanish painting, together with posters. Those contemplating a Spanish holiday will also find information on the holiday resorts and places of historical interest, including maps. This collection will be a valuable addition to the library stock on Spanish history and culture.
Fuente: LIMERICK LEADER, May 19, 1984

ILN – No. 68 March/April 1984
THE Salvat Universal Gran Diccionario Enciclopedico has been presented to the City Libraries for their new library which will be opening in the Ilac Centre. This 20-volume encyclopaedia is universally regarded as one of the finest. The presentation was made by Mr Jose Antonio Sierra, Director of the Spanish Cultural Institute, to the City and County Librarian, Miss Mairin O’Byrne.


Mr Jose Antonio Sierra, Director of the Spanish Cultural Institute has recently donated some very interesting Spanish material to Dun Laoghaire Public Library, Louth County Library and the School of Architecture, University College, Dublin. The donations are of a mixed media nature and include periodicals, books, cassettes, records, slides, brochures, posters and also material specially packed for school projects.
The material is most informative on Spanish life and culture and would appear to cater for a wide span of interests from the library user viewpoint. Some topics covered include Spanish Art, music, architecture, history, literature and also information on hotels, holidays, summer courses and camping in Spain. Further details and particulars from: The Spanish Cultural Institute, Dublin.


A collection of 56 Spanish law books in the Spanish language has been presented to King’s Inns Library, Henrietta Street, Dublin 1 by the Spanish Cultural Institute. The volumes which cover a wide range of legal topics including constitutional, administrative and international law, were presented to the library on 14 February 1985 by Mr Jose Antonio Sierra, Director of the Institute. It is anticipated that the collection will be useful to those wishting to study Spanish law in the various aspects.
Fuente: IRISH LAW TIMES, April 1985

ILN- No. 81 October, 1985
THE following libraries have recently received donations of Spanish books and non-book material from Senor Jose Antonio Sierra, Director of the Spanish Cultural Institute: College of Technology Library, Kevin Street; Donegal County Library; Dublin Public Libraries; Kings Inns Library; Sligo County Library; St. Patricks College, Maynooth and University College Cork.
While some of the more general material deals with Spanish life, literature and history other donations have been tailored to form a useful part of the collections in more specialized libraries such as Kings Inns and the College of Technology in Kevin Street, these donations being within the disciplines of law and technology. The material in all cases is informative and beautifully presented with many of the booklets an brochures being illustrated using very high quality colour plates.
The generosity of the Spanish Cultural Institute in its cooperation with libraries and institutions is much appreciated by all concerned.

ILN – January/February 1986
With Spain and Portugal becoming member of the EEC in 1986, libraries may be interested in obtaining a free Spanish language monthly magazine called ‘Informacion Cultural’. This publication contains short articles on the performing and visual arts, books and libraries, women, sport, youth. Each month contains a colour supplement on a specific cultural event, artist, etc..The offer of regular copies is only available to libraries. To place your order write to: Spanish Cultural Institute, Dublin or
Ministerio de Cultura, Secretaria General Tecnica, Plaza del Rey 1, 28004 Madrid, Spain.

SPANISH CULTURAL INSTITUTE: The Institute has donated a number of records and periodicals to Dublin Public Libraries and some more Spanish language periodicals to the library of University College Galway over the past few months.

INSTITUTO CULTURAL ESPAÑOL DE DUBLIN (58, Northumberland Road, Dublin 4, República de Irlanda) viene, desde hace años, desempeñando una importante labor en areas de un mayor conocimiento de la cultura española en Irlanda. Últimamente este instituto ha llegado a un acuerdo de cooperación con las dos Escuelas Técnicas Superiores de Arquitectura de la República de Irlanda para ayudarles a crear una sección especial en las bibliotecas de las citadas escuelas, dedicada a la Historia de la Arquitectura, Obras Públicas y Urbanismo en España. En este sentido, su director, José Antonio Sierra, se dirige por medio de EL LIBRO ESPAÑOL a todas aquellas editoriales españolas que tengan publicaciones sobre estas materias para que remitan sus catálogos o ejemplares gratuitos, a efectos publicitarios, a los siguientes direcciones: Library, School of Architecture, Richview, Clonskeagh, University College, Dublin.
Fuente: EL LIBRO ESPAÑOL, Enero, 1986


THE LINKS with Spain go far back and there is more than one Bodega with names like O’Neale reminding us that the descendents  of the Wild Geese survived and prospered in that country.
Now a gift from Spain has been presented to the people of Wicklow that will be of immense value in future years. Mr. Jose Antonio Sierra, Director, Spanish Cultural Institute, has made an excellent presentation of books including fiction and reference material, magazines and records to the County Library, Greystones. This material will be divided between the main Branch Libraries and will be of interest to those who are either fluent in Spanish or in the learning stages of the language. For schools reference material will also be available on request.
He says there is a great interest in the language in this area due to the number of students who come here from Spain and, of course, Spain is a very popular holiday venue. So he asks people to make the local library a first stop when looking for general information on Spain. A list of all material available will be on display in each branch.
Fuente: BRAY PEOPLE, Friday, April 3, 1987


EL INSTITUTO CULTURAL ESPAÑOL, de la Dirección General de Relaciones Culturales del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, ha llegado a un acuerdo de cooperación con la librería «Waterstone’s Booksellers» de la capital para la creación de secciones dedicadas a España e Hispanoamérica, en la citada librería, que permita al público al público irlandés estar al día acerca de las últimas publicaciones aparecidas en lengua española e inglesa sobre España e Hispanoamérica.
La librería «Waterstone’s», asesorada por el Instituto, dispondrá de secciones del libro español de literatura, arte, turismo, historia, música, cine, educación y economía, así como textos y métodos, editados en España, para la enseñanza de la lengua española a extranjeros.
Todos aquellos autores, editores y libreros interesados en dar a conocer sus publicaciones o catálogos acerca de España o Hispanoamérica, en español o inglés, pueden dirigirse a Waterstone’s Booksellers, Dublin.
Fuente: DELIBROS, Mayo 1989


ALTHOUGH not yet two years in existance, the Kilkenny Spanish Circle is celebrating another successful season. This was marked last week by the visit to the city of the Director of the Spanish Cultural Institute, Dublin.
Señor Don José Antonio Sierra was guest specker at a special meeting held in the Club House hotel, attended by Spanish Groups from Waterford, New Ross and Tullamore.
Since Spain became a member of the European Community, interest in the language has increased and more and more students are learning Spanish.
Señor Sierra made a presentation of books of Spanish interest to the Co. Library service and also donated maps, posters and video tapes to the circle and the schools. Further information may be obtained from the President, Kilkenny Spanish Circle.
Fuente: KILKENNY PEOPLE, Friday, April 26, 1991

ILN No.125 June 1991
ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY: The Ambassador of Spain, H.E. Dr. Jose Antonio de Yturriaga, presented a set of books and twenty-four copy documents concerning the Spanish Armada and Hispano-Irish relations in the sixteenth century to the Library of the RAI at a reception on 9th May. These include a letter in Irish from O’Sullivan-Beare to Philip III complaining about Del Aguila’s surrender of Kinsale and requesting Spanish assistance to recover his possessions. Dr. de Yturriaga also presented the Academy with a copy of this own recent publication, Straits used for international navigation: a Spanish perspective (Nijhoff, 1991).
The Spanish Cultural Institute has recently donated books and posters to Kilkenny County Library and to the Library of University College, Galway.

ILN – No. 130  December 1991
A TODO COLOR – the exhibition of children’s book illustrations by Spanish artists which was on display at the RDS Library until November 23rd was the subject of a talk by the Director of the National Library, Dr. Patricia Donlon at the Spanish Cultural Institute. Dr. Donlon’s personal response to the exhibition was illustrated with slides from the work of the artists represented in the exhibition.
On November 28th, the Spanish Ambassador to Ireland, Mr. Fermin Zelada, presented a collection of Spanish books for the children to Dublin Public Libraries. The collection includes 150 illustrated books from the A Todo Color exhibition. The donation was made by the Ambassador on behalf of the Spanish Cepartment of Culture and the Spanish Cultural Institute as their contribution to the city’s year as Cultural Capital of Europe.

ILN – No. 137  November 1992
THE SPANISH CULTURAL INSTITUTE, in association with Dublin Public Libraries, is presenting a programme of events at the Central Library, «Spain 1992 – a celebration of Spanish Cultura» covers music, art, sport, food and wine. Details are available from the Learning Resources Centre, Central Library, Ilac Centre, Henry Street, Dublin 1.
A wide range of free publications on the Spanish language for use in public libraries may be obtained fro the Spanish Development Officer,…..London and the The Spanish Cultural Institute, Dublin.

ILN -No. 144  October 1993
is expanding its services with plans for a new library and resource centre and language laboratories.
Antonio Sierra, Director of the Spanish Cultural Institute, is now Head of Cultural Affairs of the Instituto Cervantes. Antonio is well known to most librarians in the public secto through his pioneering and enthusiastic approach to the promotion of Spanish culture. There can be few libraries collections that have not benefited from the Institute’s donations of books over the years, and the exhibition of Spanish children’s book illustrations ‘A Todo Color’ with which he was involved was a major event.
The newly appointed Director of the Instituto Cervantes is Javier Odriozola. The aim of the new Instituto Cervantes is to promote the language and culture of the people of all Sapnish-speaking countries.

José Antonio Sierra Lumbreras
Licenciado en Filosofía y Letras, Magisterio y Estudios en la Escuela Oficial de Periodismo de Madrid. Residente 40 años en Francia, Reino Unido e Irlanda como profesor de español. En Irlanda fundó el Centró Español de Documentación y el Instituto Cultural Español, actual Instituto Cervantes de Dublín. Asímismo, fue corresponsal de: Agencia EFE, Diario Informaciones, Carta de España, Crónicas de la Emigración, España Exterior, La Región Internacional y Escuela Española. Jubilado.

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